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使用 docker 命令行操作 docker 容器

发布时间:2014-11-18 来源:服务器之家

Docker container 容器介绍
容器操作

使用 docker 命令行操作 docker 容器

启动容器
core@localhost ~ $ docker run

Usage: docker run [OPTIONS] IMAGE [COMMAND] [ARG...]

Run a command in a new container

  -a, --attach=[]            Attach to STDIN, STDOUT or STDERR.
  -c, --cpu-shares=0         CPU shares (relative weight)
  --cap-add=[]               Add Linux capabilities
  --cap-drop=[]              Drop Linux capabilities
  --cidfile=""               Write the container ID to the file
  --cpuset=""                CPUs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
  -d, --detach=false         Detached mode: run container in the background and print new container ID
  --device=[]                Add a host device to the container (e.g. --device=/dev/sdc:/dev/xvdc)
  --dns=[]                   Set custom DNS servers
  --dns-search=[]            Set custom DNS search domains
  -e, --env=[]               Set environment variables
  --entrypoint=""            Overwrite the default ENTRYPOINT of the image
  --env-file=[]              Read in a line delimited file of environment variables
  --expose=[]                Expose a port from the container without publishing it to your host
  -h, --hostname=""          Container host name
  -i, --interactive=false    Keep STDIN open even if not attached
  --link=[]                  Add link to another container in the form of name:alias
  --lxc-conf=[]              (lxc exec-driver only) Add custom lxc options --lxc-conf="lxc.cgroup.cpuset.cpus = 0,1"
  -m, --memory=""            Memory limit (format: <number><optional unit>, where unit = b, k, m or g)
  --name=""                  Assign a name to the container
  --net="bridge"             Set the Network mode for the container
                               'bridge': creates a new network stack for the container on the docker bridge
                               'none': no networking for this container
                               'container:<name|id>': reuses another container network stack
                               'host': use the host network stack inside the container.  Note: the host mode gives the container full access to local system services such as D-bus and is therefore considered insecure.
  -P, --publish-all=false    Publish all exposed ports to the host interfaces
  -p, --publish=[]           Publish a container's port to the host
                               format: ip:hostPort:containerPort | ip::containerPort | hostPort:containerPort
                               (use 'docker port' to see the actual mapping)
  --privileged=false         Give extended privileges to this container
  --restart=""               Restart policy to apply when a container exits (no, on-failure, always)
  --rm=false                 Automatically remove the container when it exits (incompatible with -d)
  --sig-proxy=true           Proxy received signals to the process (even in non-TTY mode). SIGCHLD, SIGSTOP, and SIGKILL are not proxied.
  -t, --tty=false            Allocate a pseudo-TTY
  -u, --user=""              Username or UID
  -v, --volume=[]            Bind mount a volume (e.g., from the host: -v /host:/container, from Docker: -v /container)
  --volumes-from=[]          Mount volumes from the specified container(s)
  -w, --workdir=""           Working directory inside the container


容器启动可以使用上述参数,下面是一些常见的参数的使用示例:


"lang-shell">core@localhost ~ $ docker run -ti ubuntu:14.04  /bin/bash
root@fd2db7b20f6b:/#
# -t 表示返回一个 tty 终端,-i 表示打开容器的标准输入,使用这个命令可以得到一个容器的 shell 终端,如果不使用 dockerfile 的话,可以使用这种方式来对容器做一些更改,然后使用「docker commit」提交到新的 image
#让我们打开另外一个终端,查看下当前运行的容器
core@localhost ~ $ docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                                 COMMAND                CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                                          NAMES
fd2db7b20f6b        dl.dockerpool.com:5000/ubuntu:14.04   "/bin/bash"            23 seconds ago      Up 22 seconds                                                      thirsty_hawking
9cb2e45814e0        4b32789c7d66                          "/run.sh"              21 hours ago        Up 21 hours         0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp, 0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp   loving_feynman
e3c136d76b44        tutum/tomcat:8.0                      "/run.sh"              23 hours ago        Up 23 hours         0.0.0.0:80->8080/tcp                           tomcat001
fe9e65aaf58c        dl.dockerpool.com:5000/mysql:5.7      "/entrypoint.sh mysq   23 hours ago        Up 23 hours         3306/tcp                                       db001,tomcat001/tomysql
#可以看到 fd2db7b20f6b 正处于运行中
root@fd2db7b20f6b:/# exit
exit
#当我们 「exit」 退出的时候,再查看下「docker ps」
core@localhost ~ $ docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                              COMMAND                CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                                          NAMES
9cb2e45814e0        4b32789c7d66                       "/run.sh"              21 hours ago        Up 21 hours         0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp, 0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp   loving_feynman
e3c136d76b44        tutum/tomcat:8.0                   "/run.sh"              23 hours ago        Up 23 hours         0.0.0.0:80->8080/tcp                           tomcat001
fe9e65aaf58c        dl.dockerpool.com:5000/mysql:5.7   "/entrypoint.sh mysq   23 hours ago        Up 23 hours         3306/tcp                                       db001,tomcat001/tomysql
#我们发现容器已经退出了,所以这种启动的方法不是我们使用容器来运行服务的好办法



core@localhost ~ $ docker images
REPOSITORY                                              TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             VIRTUAL SIZE
base/163                                                latest              468d347c06bc        46 hours ago        249.1 MB
test/supervisord                                        latest              468d347c06bc        46 hours ago        249.1 MB
ubuntu                                                  14.04               1357f421be38        5 days ago          192.7 MB
dl.dockerpool.com:5000/ubuntu                           14.04               1357f421be38        5 days ago          192.7 MB
mysql                                                   5.7                 e95cbb9f48ea        7 days ago          258.6 MB
dl.dockerpool.com:5000/mysql                            5.7                 e95cbb9f48ea        7 days ago          258.6 MB
<none>                                                  <none>              4b32789c7d66        6 weeks ago         469.8 MB
tutum/tomcat                                            8.0                 866eb07a675e        6 weeks ago         539.4 MB
tutum/tomcat                                            latest              02e84f04100e        6 weeks ago         539.4 MB
dl.dockerpool.com:5000/alexeiled/docker-oracle-xe-11g   latest              ba16d5d5e1aa        7 months ago        2.388 GB
core@localhost ~ $ docker run -p 100:22 -d  base/163
6d9542bdc544e20b2f9718633a479e09047abef675ea24377d4daf4f04f20237
#这里我们使用了前面创建的 base/163 的容器,并使用了 -p 和 -d 2个参数,他们分别表示映射宿主主机端口和后台运行容器的意思
core@localhost ~ $ docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                              COMMAND                CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                                          NAMES
6d9542bdc544        base/163:latest                    "/usr/bin/supervisor   5 minutes ago       Up 5 minutes        0.0.0.0:100->22/tcp                            desperate_franklin
9cb2e45814e0        4b32789c7d66                       "/run.sh"              21 hours ago        Up 21 hours         0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp, 0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp   loving_feynman
e3c136d76b44        tutum/tomcat:8.0                   "/run.sh"              23 hours ago        Up 23 hours         0.0.0.0:80->8080/tcp                           tomcat001
fe9e65aaf58c        dl.dockerpool.com:5000/mysql:5.7   "/entrypoint.sh mysq   23 hours ago        Up 23 hours         3306/tcp
#从输出的 port 列,我们可以看到 0.0.0.0:100->22/tcp ,它表示该容器映射了宿主主机的 100 端口到容器的 22 端口,即 ssh 服务端口
#这样我们就创建了一个具有 ssh 服务的容器,如果需要创建其他类型服务的容器,步骤跟创建 ssh 服务差不多,我们会在后面的章节详细介绍
core@localhost ~ $ ssh root@127.0.0.1 -p 100
Welcome to Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (GNU/Linux 3.2.0-58-generic x86_64)

 * Documentation:  https://help.ubuntu.com/

The programs included with the Ubuntu system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.

Ubuntu comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by
applicable law.

root@6d9542bdc544:~#exit
logout
Connection to 127.0.0.1 closed.
core@localhost ~ $ docker  ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                              COMMAND                CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                                          NAMES
6d9542bdc544        base/163:latest                    "/usr/bin/supervisor   11 minutes ago      Up 11 minutes       0.0.0.0:100->22/tcp                            desperate_franklin
9cb2e45814e0        4b32789c7d66                       "/run.sh"              21 hours ago        Up 21 hours         0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp, 0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp   loving_feynman
e3c136d76b44        tutum/tomcat:8.0                   "/run.sh"              23 hours ago        Up 23 hours         0.0.0.0:80->8080/tcp                           tomcat001
fe9e65aaf58c        dl.dockerpool.com:5000/mysql:5.7   "/entrypoint.sh mysq   23 hours ago        Up 23 hours         3306/tcp                                       db001,tomcat001/tomysql
#我们从 ssh 终端退出后,容器也不会停止


注意:如果读者没有跟着我们的教程来创建 base/163 的镜像,这里是看不到的这个 images 的,点击这里查看教程 另外,还有一些如 -v --link 等与容器数据存储和网络相关的参数将相关章节再详细介绍

停止容器
core@localhost ~ $ docker stop

Usage: docker stop [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]

Stop a running container by sending SIGTERM and then SIGKILL after a grace period

  -t, --time=10      Number of seconds to wait for the container to stop before killing it.
Default is 10 seconds.
#还可以设定在强制杀死容器进程之前等待多少秒来等待容器停止,一般使用默认值即可
core@localhost ~ $ docker stop 6d9
#也可以使用容器的名称来停止,停止多个容器在每个容器之间加空格即可
6d9
core@localhost ~ $ docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                              COMMAND                CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                                          NAMES
9cb2e45814e0        4b32789c7d66                       "/run.sh"              21 hours ago        Up 21 hours         0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp, 0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp   loving_feynman
e3c136d76b44        tutum/tomcat:8.0                   "/run.sh"              23 hours ago        Up 23 hours         0.0.0.0:80->8080/tcp                           tomcat001
fe9e65aaf58c        dl.dockerpool.com:5000/mysql:5.7   "/entrypoint.sh mysq   23 hours ago        Up 23 hours         3306/tcp                                       db001,tomcat001/tomysql


删除容器
core@localhost ~ $ docker rm

Usage: docker rm [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]

Remove one or more containers

  -f, --force=false      Force the removal of a running container (uses SIGKILL)
  #使用 SIGKILL 强制删除一个正在运行的容器
  -l, --link=false       Remove the specified link and not the underlying container
  #删除容器的连接,而非容器
  -v, --volumes=false    Remove the volumes associated with the container
  #删除容器相关的数据卷
core@localhost ~ $ docker start 6d9
6d9
core@localhost ~ $ docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                              COMMAND                CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                                          NAMES
6d9542bdc544        base/163:latest                    "/usr/bin/supervisor   25 minutes ago      Up 2 seconds        0.0.0.0:100->22/tcp                            desperate_franklin
9cb2e45814e0        4b32789c7d66                       "/run.sh"              21 hours ago        Up 21 hours         0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp, 0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp   loving_feynman
e3c136d76b44        tutum/tomcat:8.0                   "/run.sh"              23 hours ago        Up 23 hours         0.0.0.0:80->8080/tcp                           tomcat001
fe9e65aaf58c        dl.dockerpool.com:5000/mysql:5.7   "/entrypoint.sh mysq   23 hours ago        Up 23 hours         3306/tcp                                       db001,tomcat001/tomysql
#当我们使用「docker stop」停止一个容器之后,容器并没有被删除,我们还可以使用「docker start」来启动它
core@localhost ~ $ docker start 6d9
6d9
core@localhost ~ $ docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                              COMMAND                CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                                          NAMES
6d9542bdc544        base/163:latest                    "/usr/bin/supervisor   25 minutes ago      Up 2 seconds        0.0.0.0:100->22/tcp                            desperate_franklin
9cb2e45814e0        4b32789c7d66                       "/run.sh"              21 hours ago        Up 21 hours         0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp, 0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp   loving_feynman
e3c136d76b44        tutum/tomcat:8.0                   "/run.sh"              23 hours ago        Up 23 hours         0.0.0.0:80->8080/tcp                           tomcat001
fe9e65aaf58c        dl.dockerpool.com:5000/mysql:5.7   "/entrypoint.sh mysq   23 hours ago        Up 23 hours         3306/tcp                                       db001,tomcat001/tomysql
core@localhost ~ $ docker rm -f 6d9
#使用 -f 强制删除容器
6d9
core@localhost ~ $ docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                              COMMAND                CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                                          NAMES
9cb2e45814e0        4b32789c7d66                       "/run.sh"              22 hours ago        Up 22 hours         0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp, 0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp   loving_feynman
e3c136d76b44        tutum/tomcat:8.0                   "/run.sh"              24 hours ago        Up 24 hours         0.0.0.0:80->8080/tcp                           tomcat001
fe9e65aaf58c        dl.dockerpool.com:5000/mysql:5.7   "/entrypoint.sh mysq   24 hours ago        Up 24 hours         3306/tcp                                       db001,tomcat001/tomysql
core@localhost ~ $ docker rm -l   tomcat001/tomysql
tomcat001/tomysql
#使用 -l 删除了之前建立的到 mysql 的连接
core@localhost ~ $ docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                              COMMAND                CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                                          NAMES
9cb2e45814e0        4b32789c7d66                       "/run.sh"              22 hours ago        Up 22 hours         0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp, 0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp   loving_feynman
e3c136d76b44        tutum/tomcat:8.0                   "/run.sh"              24 hours ago        Up 24 hours         0.0.0.0:80->8080/tcp                           tomcat001
fe9e65aaf58c        dl.dockerpool.com:5000/mysql:5.7   "/entrypoint.sh mysq   24 hours ago        Up 24 hours         3306/tcp                                       db001
core@localhost ~ $


导出容器
core@localhost ~ $ docker export

Usage: docker export CONTAINER

Export the contents of a filesystem as a tar archive to STDOUT
core@localhost ~ $ docker run -d base/163
5883b400a03ed81b76a22badeb8948642023dd4b64c083cc74e787a2e3d7f7a4
core@localhost ~ $ docker  ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                              COMMAND                CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                                          NAMES
5883b400a03e        base/163:latest                    "/usr/bin/supervisor   3 seconds ago       Up 2 seconds        22/tcp                                         agitated_heisenberg
9cb2e45814e0        4b32789c7d66                       "/run.sh"              23 hours ago        Up 23 hours         0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp, 0.0.0.0:8080->80/tcp   loving_feynman
e3c136d76b44        tutum/tomcat:8.0                   "/run.sh"              24 hours ago        Up 24 hours         0.0.0.0:80->8080/tcp                           tomcat001
fe9e65aaf58c        dl.dockerpool.com:5000/mysql:5.7   "/entrypoint.sh mysq   24 hours ago        Up 24 hours         3306/tcp                                       db001
core@localhost ~ $ docker export 588 >>base/163.tar
core@localhost ~/base $ ls -lh
total 227M
-rw-r--r-- 1 core core 227M Oct 16 03:00 163.tar
#导出了一个227M的文件,我们又可以将他导入成为 images